Research by Prof. Haemig of Luther Seminary, St. Paul, points to Johann Hinrich Wichern (1808–1881), a Protestant pastor in Germany and a pioneer in urban mission work among the poor, as the inventor of the modern Advent wreath in the 19th century. During Advent, children at the mission school Rauhes Haus, founded by Wichern in Hamburg, would ask daily if Christmas had arrived. In 1839, he built a large wooden ring (made out of an old cartwheel) with 20 small red and 4 large white candles. A small candle was lit successively every weekday and Saturday during Advent. On Sundays, a large white candle was lit. The custom gained ground among Protestant churches in Germany and evolved into the smaller wreath with four or five candles known today. Roman Catholics in Germany began to adopt the custom in the 1920s, and in the 1930s it spread to North America. Professor Haemig’s research also indicates that the custom did not reach the United States until the 1930s, even among German Lutheran immigrants.
If white color can be presented as a sum of all colors, then black is kind of like a lack of color. However, this color is not very important in the interior. Every evening we go back to night with pleasure to rejuvenate our strength. It is this color that gives the beginning to everything new. Black color is indispensable for contrast accentuation and separation of other colors, giving them brightness and expressiveness. It makes the interior graphic and clear as well as very stylish. Preparation, the key to a successful paint job is to take the correct steps when preparing the job. Preparation for this article, has two parts, the first part is wall prep. The walls you are going to paint may have nail holes or imperfections that need to be filled before you paint. The proper way to fill them, if they are smaller is with water putty, by simply forcing a little bit of the putty in the hole and breaking it off flush with the surface. For larger depressions, use a drywall compound or spackle, which may require a second application to fully fill the indentation and make the repair/"patch" flush with the wall. Basically what you're looking for is a good, solid foundation of existing paint that is stable and still strongly bonded to the car. Many times an original factory paint job, even after decades will meet these criteria.
OK, let's get started. Step one...supplies. You need a flat brush, a fan, a small detail brush and a couple of Filberts. A filbert is a rounded edge brush that lets you maneuver the paint easily without going outside the edges. Ultimately buy brushes that you like though, and make them work. Fans allow you to blend, for example. I use fans a lot and it's how I graduate color throughout my images. Everything I paint is by hand....no airbrushing or assistants. I want it to be an expression of me and nobody else. You also need an oil painting medium to mix with the oil paint to make it more fluid, and to speed or slow the drying process. Whichever you prefer. Go to the art store and don't be afraid to ask for help....they'll love helping you! A medium is merely an additive liquid which increases gloss, makes it flow easily, preserves the finish over time, keeps it from yellowing. I personally love Galkyd and Galkyd Lite. If that isn't available, buy a medium that looks like liquid amber and is kind of thick. Don't buy watery looking mediums....too hard to work with. When it comes to makeup, the best eye pencil colors are in the shades of brown to brown-black espresso. To bring attention to your eyes, wear eye shadows in medium shades of copper, medium olive green and medium to dark brown. For instant goddess glow, use blush colors anywhere from terracotta to deep tones of salmon. Let your lips look fuller with shades of cinnamon, peach and terracotta. Finally, let your lashes look fuller with brown or black brown mascara. Airless Tip: If you have somebody who can start masking off the trim, have them start on that while you convert the airless to a new color. When changing colors with an airless paint sprayer it is a good idea to have a second bucket filled half way with clean water. Place the intake hose in the clean water gently without getting the old color everywhere in the water. Take the tip out of the airless and spray all of the old paint out of the hose and back into its original paint bucket. Be careful when doing this that you recognize when the paint starts turning watery. When it does point the gun into the first bucket and spray until it looks pretty clean. It doesn't need to be perfectly clean. When it looks good, clean off the intake line in the clean bucket and get the old color off the intake line. Now place the intake line inside of your new trim paint. When all of the spraying is complete, its time to remove all masking tape and paper and start touching up your entire home. This step is pretty time consuming because this is the final stage that really makes your home look good. The more time you spend here, the better your home will look.