Before piped mains supplies, water for firefighting had to be kept in buckets and cauldrons ready for use by ‘bucket-brigades’ or brought with a horse-drawn fire-pump. From the 16th century, as wooden mains water systems were installed, firefighters would dig down the pipes and drill a hole for water to fill a “wet well” for the buckets or pumps. This had to be filled and plugged afterwards, hence the common US term for a hydrant, ‘fireplug’. A marker would be left to indicate where a ‘plug’ had already been drilled to enable firefighters to find ready-drilled holes. Later wooden systems had pre-drilled holes and plugs. When cast-iron pipes replaced the wood, permanent underground access points were included for the fire fighters. Some countries provide access covers to these points, while others attach fixed above-ground hydrants – the first cast iron ones patented in 1801 by Frederick Graff, then chief-engineer of the Philadelphia Water Works. Invention since then has targeted problems such as tampering, freezing, connection, reliability etc.
Now let's proceed to analyzing the center of the composition. There is an optical center in the middle - you will notice that the center of the composition, the major element will never be placed there, otherwise the scene will look artificial. The center of the composition will always be the most striking element, and the rest will just serve to make it more expressive. The artist may use various means to achieve this effect - the color contrasts, light and shade effects, size of objects and distance between them. Secondary elements are depicted with less detail and vigor - they have to bring forward the center, not block it. Notice the way your eyes travel the painting - intuitively you will start at the center and will proceed to the rest of the elements to refine the story. Paint & Paper Library arranges its colours in five shades from light to dark to help select coordinating colours for ceilings, cornices, walls, doors and woodwork. If you are decorating around bold furnishings, such as a sofa or curtains, look at paint colours from the same fabric house as they are most likely to be sympathetic. And, its never been more important to know your colors. Why? Because color is back in a big way! Just look at the vast variety of colors in the department stores.
Now, decide WHAT you want to paint. Very important...you do NOT need to know how to draw. That's the great thing about painting, you can create even if you've never had a lesson. Don't get me wrong, art school is great. But don't let the lack thereof deter you from creating. You do not have to have a teacher to tell you how to create. You do need to know a few basic techniques, but from there let your imagination fly! When deciding what to paint, go to some websites about artists or Google famous artists to get inspired. Again, do not let a lack of training deter you from painting! Many of the great artists of the past had no training either. Many can't draw stick figures, but they can paint because the colors give you amazing options of expression! You may also go to my websites mentioned below or Google me to see all the crazy work I've created. My personal preference has been to create a large variety of work to keep it interesting and versatile. I did not want to be that artist who only painted one thing over and over. To me that's boring, and it should be boring to you too. Any known artist of the past has a vast variety of work. You'll also find that it makes it more interesting to you while you're doing it, because you won't ever get bored, you'll always be wondering how it'll turn out. Remember, you will need to clean the airless in that same fashion before you return the airless back to the rental company. Traditional Paints. Available from specialists such as Farrow & Ball and The Real Paint & Varnish Company, lime wash and distemper paints can be useful for restoration projects, although some of the contents are potentially hazardous and can irritate eyes and skin. Use the modern equivalents where possible, as these are usually safer and more effective. INTERIOR PAINTING. If you want to alter your room's ambience, painting it is a great option. When interior painting, use paints that are quicker to dry and does not have a strong odor that lingers around where your kids can smell it.